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Indian courts: Types of courts in India (details of court)

courts in India

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Indian courts:Types of courts in India

  • Sessions Court

  • Civil Court

  • Family Court

  • Special Courts

  • High Courts

  • Supreme Court

  • Lok Adalats

  • Tribunals



A Sessions Court is called as a lower court of law which exists in several democratic countries like India, Malaysia, and the USA.

The session court is the highest criminal court in a district.

District court is referred to as sessions court when it exercises its jurisdiction on criminal matters under Code of the Criminal procedure.

Indian courts: Types of courts in India


The civil court will handle legal disputes that are not crimes.

In civil cases, there is not a prosecution by the government.

A plaintiff, a person, group, business, institution, or a government body, brings a claim of harm against the defendant, another person or group.

The civil courts, we include personal injury, medical malpractice, torts, traffic court, bankruptcy, adoption and family court, business issues, and many others.

Indian courts: Types of courts in India


Family court is an Equity convened to decide matters and to make orders in relation to a family law, such as custody of children, property Etc.

The Family court was 1st established in the USA in 1910 when they were called domestic relations courts although the idea itself is much older.

A family court will take all the cases which come related to familial & also domestic relationships.

And all the state has the different system utilized to address family law cases each state strives to provide families with a best possible outcome in family law cases.

A Family court will also issue decisions regarding divorce cases.


A special court is a court of limited jurisdiction, that deals with a particular field of law rather than a particular territorial jurisdiction.

Indian courts: Types of courts in India

High Court

There are 24 High Courts at the state and union territory level of India, which together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country’s judicial system.

Every high court has jurisdiction all over the state, a union territory or the group of states and union territories.

Below the High Court is a hierarchy of subordinate courts such as the civil courts, family courts, criminal courts and various other district courts.

High Courts are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in each state and union territory.


Indian courts: Types of courts in India


A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of many legal jurisdictions.

Broadly speaking, the decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court.

The Supreme Court will function of primarily as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of the lower courts.

Indian courts: Types of courts in India


Lok Adalat (people’s courts) settle a dispute through conciliation and compromise.

1st time held at Junagadh (Gujarat) in October 1982 Accepts cases pending in regular court under their jurisdiction.

In this Lok Adalat, the sitting officer will be a retired judicial officer as a chairman, with the 2 other members along with them the lawyers and a social worker will be.

The main condition of the Lok Adalat is that the both parties in dispute should agree for settlement.

There is no court fee in the Lok Adalat.

In the Lok Adalat if the case was already filed in the regular court, the fees which you paid to the regular court that amount will be refunded if the dispute is settled at a Lok Adalat.

Indian courts: Types of courts in India


The tribunal, generally, is any person or an institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes or not it is called a tribunal in its title.

For Example, a lawyer who will appear before the court with the single judge could describe that the judge as {their tribunal}.

Indian courts: Types of courts in India

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