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Stepper Motor|Here is a Quick Beginner’s Guide Step By Step

Stepper Motor Working Principle !

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The people who are completely clueless of what this “stepper motor” exactly is then this write-up will surely help them in understanding the fundamentals of this Electromechanical device.So, first let us apprehend the term stepper motor with a basic definition.

“It is a brush less, synchronous DC motor that is responsible for splitting a rotation into a multiple number of steps”.

The coils within it may vary in number and are joined in different groups called as “phases”. These phases are channelized together.

These are sturdy and reasonable owing to its limited mechanical parts.

Why Should One Switch to the Stepper Motor?

  • The best part about this motor is that it is very simple to handle.
  • It is supposed to be super-suited when precise and controlled movements are needed the most.
  • Moreover, it offers excellent torque at the lower speed in contrast to the other DC motors that does not provide this feature.

Types of the Stepper Motor

There are basically three types of this motor and these are listed below:

  • Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

stepper motor

This kind of motor will deploy the permanent magnet on its rotor section. The attraction and repulsion between the rotor magnet and the stater magnet will lead to the smooth operation throughout. It finds application in scanner, copies, printers etc.

The best way to distinguish between this type and the variable one is that you will not observe any the “teeth” in the construction of Permanent magnet in contrast to the variable reluctance.

  • Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

In this, the motor will have stater and rotor arranged in such a manner that guarantees less magnetic reluctance and you will find the “metal teeth”.

  • Hybrid Stepper Motor

As the name predicts, it is a mixture of both the permanent magnet and the variable reluctance. The hybrid motor combines the characteristics of both the above types so that it can quickly attain the maximum amount of power.

Stepper Motor Configuration

There are mainly two configurations of this motor and these are discussed below:

  • Bipolar

stepper motor

This arrangement has only single winding per stater phase. As it is bipolar so it will not have any common lead unlike uni polar.

The H-bridge circuitry is imperative in order to drive the motor.

  • Unipolar

It has generally one wind with a centre tapping per phase. It will have a common lead.

For driving the motor, the H-bridge is not required.


It is due to the robust performance of the stepper motor that it has found its application in a variety of ways and these are:

  1. Industrial machinery

These motors can be used in the designing of the products and different gauges like speedometers, tachometers etc.

  1. Commercial goods

The stepper motor is used in the cameras for the purpose of achieving functions like zoom.

  1. Medical industry

This motor is utilized in the medical instruments like fluid pumps, respirators etc.

  1. Security

These are used inside the surveillance system for the security industry.

  1. Laser Optics

The stepper motor is used for the precision controlling perspective.


  • The stepper motor is highly reliable.
  • It requires very little maintenance.
  • Adaptive to function well in any environment.
  • It provides the precise positioning.
  • There is zero complexity in the construction.

So, that is all about the basics of the stepper motor. Hoping that this piece of writing will be conducive enough that will definitely clear all your doubts of the stepper motor!