We need to underastand the importants of food constituents for over energy, growth and maintenance of our body. .
Do you think, your breakfast contains all the constituents of food and in right quantity?
As you know, healthy food includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals and roughage. The food which includes the essential nutrients in a definite quantity is termed as balanced diet.
1. Carbohydrates: (food constituents)
carbohydrates are commonly called sugar or saccharides. They are made up of carbon, hydrogenand oxygen.
Types of carbohydrates
There are three types of carbohydrates. They are Monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Do you know why the patients and athletes are given glucose?
Glucose is a simple sugar unit (molecule).what do fruits contain? They contain another simple sugar called fructose.
Importance of carbohydrates
- Glucose is the principal source of energy for all our activities.
2. Deoxyribose, a pentose sugar is a part of our genetic [hereditary] material.
3. Starch and glycogen serve as energy storage products.
4. polysaccharides like cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin though do not supply energy, are importance as fibrous components (roughage)of our food.
2. Proteins : (food constituents)
proteins are made up of amino acids. Amino acids contain carbon, hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen. There are 20 different types of amino acids. These amino acids are linked by peptide bonds to from proteins [polypeptides].
Importance of proteins
proteins are present in the cell membrane, hairs, nails, bones, cartilage, tendons and muscles.
- They regulate various life processes.
2. They increase the rate of chemical reaction in our body .
3. They help in transporting substances. for example, haemoglobin transports oxygen.
4. They cause the muscle contration and help in our movement.
5. they provides immunioty to the body
6. They help in blood clotting and prevent bleeding.
7. they are essential for the growth of our body parts.
3. Lipids : (food constituents)
like carbohydrates, lipids are also made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. but, they contain less oxygen than in carbohydrates. A lipid molecule is made up of building blocks calfood synonymsled fatty acids linked by ester bounds. lipids are insoluble in water. but are soluble in organic solvents link ether.
are you found of butter, ghee and cheese? what are they? They are animal fats. similarly, we consume vegetable oils like groundnut oil, sesame oil and coconut oil.
Fats and oils made up of fatty acids and glycerol are simple lipids.
Importance of lipids
- Along with carbohydrates, lipids (fats) also provide energy.
2. Fats act as thermal insulators and help in maintain body temperature.
3. lipids are a part of cell membrane.